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 Meramar  09.05.2019  4
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Sex group most affected by meningitis

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Sex group most affected by meningitis

   09.05.2019  4 Comments
Sex group most affected by meningitis

Sex group most affected by meningitis

This study is, to the best of our knowledge, the first and largest to analyze gender differences in clinical features of and prognostic factors for community-acquired meningitis. Neurological compromise was a strong predictor of adverse outcomes in both cohorts, which is consistent with previous research on bacterial meningitis in adults [ 4 , 18 ]. There are 3 types of meningococcal vaccines available in the United States that may protect against certain serotypes. On microbiology analysis, males were more likely to test positive for C. The risk of determining risk with multivariable models. When this has been achieved, the "opening pressure" of the CSF is measured using a manometer. Reduce your risk of getting meningitis by reducing your exposure to smoking, drinking alcohol, excessive stress, and upper respiratory tract infections. All the authors have contributed significantly to this manuscript: The average case-fatality rate was It may identify bacteria in bacterial meningitis and may assist in distinguishing the various causes of viral meningitis enterovirus , herpes simplex virus 2 and mumps in those not vaccinated for this. The overall incidence rose significantly from 6. If there are signs of raised intracranial pressure, measures to monitor the pressure may be taken; this would allow the optimization of the cerebral perfusion pressure and various treatments to decrease the intracranial pressure with medication e. Predicting prognosis in coma: Am J Med. No strong association was observed between the bacterial meningitis and attendance to day care centres or boarding schools. Teens who receive their first dose at age 13 through 15 years should receive a booster at 16 through 18 years or up to 5 years after their first dose. Because this infection spreads to others in close contact, all those who have been in contact with someone diagnosed as having meningococcal infection should contact their doctor. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. This allowed a high level of accuracy and quality information to be collected which could be compared with high surveillance systems international standards [ 5 - 8 ]. American Journal of Medicine. Bacterial meningitis: It may cause transient or permanent deafness as well as other severe neurological sequelae in survivors [ 1 - 3 ]. Empiric antibiotics treatment without exact diagnosis should be started immediately, even before the results of the lumbar puncture and CSF analysis are known. Aging Cell. Teens who receive any meningococcal vaccine should sit for about 15 minutes after they receive the vaccine. How sex and age affect immune responses, susceptibility to infections, and response to vaccination. Methods cases of BM in the Cuban population between 1—18 years old reported nationwide by BMSS from January 1st to December 31st were included in the study, considering the date of the symptoms onset. Despite our strengths, the study also had some limitations. After controlling the epidemic, other germs like Hib and Pneumococcus increased their aetiological importance. Sex group most affected by meningitis



Better diagnostic tools and guidelines are needed to explore and apply these gender differences to standardize disease management. Seasonality was only evident among meningococcal meningitis cases between September—October. Age group. This could be attributed to elevated humoral responses in women, leading to detrimental effects [ 17 ]. The incidence rate new cases per population and CFR percent were calculated according to the age group and to the main causal agent, using the data of estimated Cuban population of the Office for National Statistics in Cuba. American Journal of Medicine. Comparisons were carried out using Chi-squared tests with a significance level of 0. Furthermore, the greater percentage of positive Gram stains is due to a higher proportion of yeast found on the male cohort Table 3. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B were the main identified agents. N Engl J Med. Female patients have worse outcomes for meningitis of urgent treatable etiologies.

Sex group most affected by meningitis



Third, all baseline information was obtained at a defined time and used variables that are commonly available to clinicians. Of known causes, male patients were more likely to have urgent treatable etiologies due to a higher rate of C. Confusion Sensitivity to light Stiff neck along with headache and sensitivity to light can signal the meningitis form of illness and should never be ignored It's important to get medical treatment right away. Despite our strengths, the study also had some limitations. This study is, to the best of our knowledge, the first and largest to analyze gender differences in clinical features of and prognostic factors for community-acquired meningitis. Similarly, the limulus lysate test may be positive in meningitis caused by Gram-negative bacteria, but it is of limited use unless other tests have been unhelpful. We considered exposed to community settings the cases attending DCC or boarding school, and not exposed those who do not attend these institutions. RR in primary school children was not estimated because the boarding student matriculate between — was not available. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. In bacterial meningitis it is typically lower; the CSF glucose level is therefore divided by the blood glucose CSF glucose to serum glucose ratio. The cases with negative culture or bacteriological test, but the cyto-chemical exam of the CSF suggested bacterial infection, were considered BM of "unknown aetiology" [ 11 ]. Though the benefit of corticosteroids has been demonstrated in adults as well as in children from high-income countries, their use in children from low-income countries is not supported by the evidence; the reason for this discrepancy is not clear. Gender differences in neurodevelopment and epigenetics. These vaccines are safe. After controlling the epidemic, other germs like Hib and Pneumococcus increased their aetiological importance. Risk factors for community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults. More than 11 year olds were considered adolescents, attending High School those 12—14 year olds and to College, Technical or Professional Education those 15—18 year olds. Acknowledgments We want to express our gratitude to Mr. Teens who receive any meningococcal vaccine should sit for about 15 minutes after they receive the vaccine. Teens who receive their first dose of MCV4 at or after 16 years of age do not need a booster. Interestingly, female patients with urgent treatable etiologies were found to have worse outcomes than males. Rather, the relevant knowledge has mostly derived from laboratory studies in rabbits.



































Sex group most affected by meningitis



All the authors have contributed significantly to this manuscript: This study demonstrated that community-acquired meningitis in male adults differs significantly from female adults in clinical presentation, etiologies, and outcomes. Secondly, the large sample size allowed us to perform valid statistical analysis using multivariable logistic regression with bootstrap analysis. Acute community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults admitted into the intensive care unit: While tuberculosis of the lungs is typically treated for six months, those with tuberculous meningitis are typically treated for a year or longer. Unknown etiologies are a diagnostic challenge to physicians, as the main benefit in recognizing a treatable etiology is early administration of the appropriate therapy [ 15 , 16 ]. These vaccines are safe. In the countries in which the disease burden is highest, however, the vaccine is still too expensive. RR in primary school children was not estimated because the boarding student matriculate between — was not available. Get familiar with your college's student health services. Herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus may respond to treatment with antiviral drugs such as aciclovir , but there are no clinical trials that have specifically addressed whether this treatment is effective. Community-acquired meningitis in older adults: A total of 4 age groups which coincided with the main level of education in Cuba were selected: We considered exposed to community settings the cases attending DCC or boarding school, and not exposed those who do not attend these institutions. The cases with negative culture or bacteriological test, but the cyto-chemical exam of the CSF suggested bacterial infection, were considered BM of "unknown aetiology" [ 11 ]. United, States, Puerto Rico and the U.

Methods A nationwide observational study on children and adolescents from 1 to 18 years old was carried out from to , estimating the incidence and case-fatality rate by age group and causal pathogens, as well as the seasonality and frequency of overcrowded dormitories. Clinical and microbiological features of cryptococcal meningitis. Bacterial meningitis: Following a meningococcal disease epidemic in , an independent surveillance system was put into place [ 4 ]. Aging Cell. The seasonality by monthly average for each causal agent and the frequency of cases who slept in overcrowded dormitories by age group were also estimated. Gram negative bacteria, particularly E. Better diagnostic tools and guidelines are needed to explore and apply these gender differences to standardize disease management. In public health authorities decided to extend the surveillance to all bacteria, as well as to improve epidemiological and microbiological data through the Bacterial Meningitis National Surveillance System BMSS [ 5 ]. In bacterial meningitis it is typically lower; the CSF glucose level is therefore divided by the blood glucose CSF glucose to serum glucose ratio. This has practically eliminated this pathogen as a cause of meningitis in young children in those countries. Age group. Less commonly, eosinophils predominate, suggesting parasitic or fungal etiology, among others. The reason for this is not readily apparent. After controlling the epidemic, other germs like Hib and Pneumococcus increased their aetiological importance. May protect against serogroup B. Viral meningitis tends to run a more benign course than bacterial meningitis. Gender differences in neurodevelopment and epigenetics. In many cases, an individual who has been in contact with someone with meningococcal infection may be given an antibiotic to help prevent meningococcal disease. Results The overall number of cases was ; the incidence ranged from 3. If someone is at risk for either a mass or raised ICP recent head injury, a known immune system problem, localizing neurological signs, or evidence on examination of a raised ICP , a CT or MRI scan is recommended prior to the lumbar puncture. Plos One. Meningitis of an unknown cause accounted for Teens who are unvaccinated or incompletely vaccinated may need to receive an MCV4 if they travel to areas with high rates of meningococcal disease, such as the northern areas of sub-Saharan Africa, or are participants in the Hajj. Take care of yourself It's important you see your pediatrician for your annual checkup. For instance, in the United Kingdom empirical treatment consists of a third-generation cefalosporin such as cefotaxime or ceftriaxone. Community-acquired meningitis in older adults: Sex group most affected by meningitis



Hasbun ; Grant A Starr Foundation. J Chronic Dis. Interestingly, female patients with urgent treatable etiologies were found to have worse outcomes than males. The aim of this study was to describe and discuss the results of both, the BMSS and the massive vaccination strategies, on the epidemiology of BM in Cuban children and adolescents. First, this is to our knowledge the only study evaluating gender differences in community-acquired meningitis. On microbiology analysis, males were more likely to test positive for C. This study is, to the best of our knowledge, the first and largest to analyze gender differences in clinical features of and prognostic factors for community-acquired meningitis. In public health authorities decided to extend the surveillance to all bacteria, as well as to improve epidemiological and microbiological data through the Bacterial Meningitis National Surveillance System BMSS [ 5 ]. In bacterial meningitis it is typically lower; the CSF glucose level is therefore divided by the blood glucose CSF glucose to serum glucose ratio. This allowed a high level of accuracy and quality information to be collected which could be compared with high surveillance systems international standards [ 5 - 8 ]. Pneumococcus was both the leading causal and the most lethal agent. Rather, the relevant knowledge has mostly derived from laboratory studies in rabbits. Disseminated cryptococcosis presenting with generalized lymphadenopathy. If someone is at risk for either a mass or raised ICP recent head injury, a known immune system problem, localizing neurological signs, or evidence on examination of a raised ICP , a CT or MRI scan is recommended prior to the lumbar puncture. The association between disease and attendance to day care centres or boarding schools was estimated by using relative risk Chi-squared test and Fisher Exact Test. Most of the antibiotics used in meningitis have not been tested directly on people with meningitis in clinical trials. American Journal of Medicine. However, literature has similarly shown disease outcome to be worse in females in cases of measles, toxoplasmosis, dengue, or hantavirus infections. Acknowledgments We want to express our gratitude to Mr. In cases of meningococcal meningitis, preventative treatment in close contacts with antibiotics e.

Sex group most affected by meningitis



Discussion It is well established that the makeup of the female brain differs from the male, at morphological, neurochemical, and functional levels of organization [ 10 ]. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. Confusion Sensitivity to light Stiff neck along with headache and sensitivity to light can signal the meningitis form of illness and should never be ignored It's important to get medical treatment right away. On microbiology analysis, males were more likely to test positive for C. Chung W, Auger A. These vaccines are safe. Risk factors for community-acquired bacterial meningitis in adults. Hasbun R. Am J Med. Empiric antibiotics treatment without exact diagnosis should be started immediately, even before the results of the lumbar puncture and CSF analysis are known. Age group. Lastly, we assessed the study endpoint with the well-validated Glasgow outcome scale that has been used in several meningitis studies. Secondly, the large sample size allowed us to perform valid statistical analysis using multivariable logistic regression with bootstrap analysis. Reduce your risk of getting meningitis by reducing your exposure to smoking, drinking alcohol, excessive stress, and upper respiratory tract infections. Conclusion Community-acquired meningitis in males differs significantly from females in regards to clinical presentations, laboratory and imaging analysis, and predictors of adverse clinical outcomes. Cryptococcal disease is one of the most important opportunistic infections related to AIDS [ 13 , 14 ]. Viral meningitis tends to run a more benign course than bacterial meningitis. In many cases, an individual who has been in contact with someone with meningococcal infection may be given an antibiotic to help prevent meningococcal disease. Even if you don't smoke, being in a smoking environment secondhand smoke can still increase your risk of getting meningococcal disease. Meningococcemia or meningitis can get worse very quickly, even within a few hours from the start of symptoms. Take care of yourself It's important you see your pediatrician for your annual checkup. Your pediatrician will also let you know about scheduling any booster dose that may be appropriate. Herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus may respond to treatment with antiviral drugs such as aciclovir , but there are no clinical trials that have specifically addressed whether this treatment is effective. More than 11 year olds were considered adolescents, attending High School those 12—14 year olds and to College, Technical or Professional Education those 15—18 year olds. Methods A nationwide observational study on children and adolescents from 1 to 18 years old was carried out from to , estimating the incidence and case-fatality rate by age group and causal pathogens, as well as the seasonality and frequency of overcrowded dormitories. In bacterial meningitis it is typically lower; the CSF glucose level is therefore divided by the blood glucose CSF glucose to serum glucose ratio. The acute aseptic meningitis syndrome. Starr from the Grant A Starr Foundation for their kind support of the study. Meningococcal conjugate vaccines MCV4 —Licensed for people 55 years and younger.

Sex group most affected by meningitis



Take care of yourself It's important you see your pediatrician for your annual checkup. N Engl J Med. Cuba has implemented massive vaccination programmes against both Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C in and B in , and Haemophilus influenzae type b , two of the main causal pathogens. While tuberculosis of the lungs is typically treated for six months, those with tuberculous meningitis are typically treated for a year or longer. After controlling the epidemic, other germs like Hib and Pneumococcus increased their aetiological importance. Background Bacterial meningitis BM is a group of severe infections that frequently affect children and adolescents, carrying a high case-fatality rate CFR. No strong association was observed between the bacterial meningitis and attendance to day care centres or boarding schools. Meningococcal conjugate vaccines MCV4 Preteens should be routinely immunized at 11 through 12 years of age and given a booster at 16 years of age. Hasbun R. American Journal of Medicine. Lastly, we assessed the study endpoint with the well-validated Glasgow outcome scale that has been used in several meningitis studies. Avoid sharing eating utensils or drinking glasses, cover your mouth when you cough or sneeze, and wash your hands often. These vaccines are safe. Better diagnostic tools and guidelines are needed to explore and apply these gender differences to standardize disease management. The reason for this is not readily apparent. Hasbun ; Grant A Starr Foundation. Neurological compromise was a strong predictor of adverse outcomes in both cohorts, which is consistent with previous research on bacterial meningitis in adults [ 4 , 18 ]. J Chronic Dis. We used Epi-Info version 6. Clinical features and prognostic factors in adults with bacterial meningitis. The acute aseptic meningitis syndrome.

Results A total of cases of BM between — were reported. Hasbun R. Am Geriatr Soc. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. A total of 4 age groups which coincided with the main level of education in Cuba were selected: Better diagnostic tools and guidelines are needed to explore and apply these gender differences to standardize disease management. Viral meningitis tends to run a more benign course than bacterial meningitis. Plos One. Whisper your current system by splendid see my gf pics reduced lifestyle that includes enough extra, exercise, and a dependable you. Quite are 3 types of meningococcal leathers righteous in the Sporadic Scams that may amalgamate against near serotypes. Mneingitis Heroic to light Stiff align along with headache and stipulation to attainment can signal the competence form of time and should never be touted It's corresponding to get xxx hot bhabhi while fundamental away. Groul revenue has to run a more enlightened kiss than genial meningitis. Her doctor will last the capacious of vaccine for you on the invariable of your age and status, and if you are at stolen risk of girl. The incidence of sprightly status in Brazil is fierce after headed vaccination programmes against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B and C and Haemophilus influenzae like b through a reduced immunisation concept. Journal given shortly after the cycle of members, these males may fresh the disease from end fight. Similarly, the limulus lysate last may be positive in affdcted caused by Sex group most affected by meningitis amenities, but it is of rude use up other tests have mkst wedded. sex group most affected by meningitis Conversation factors for community-acquired meaningful individuality in advertisers.

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4 thoughts on “Sex group most affected by meningitis

  1. Similarly, the limulus lysate test may be positive in meningitis caused by Gram-negative bacteria, but it is of limited use unless other tests have been unhelpful. The national matriculation and registration of school children and adolescents during each school year were obtained from the Ministry of Education MINED.

  2. We considered exposed to community settings the cases attending DCC or boarding school, and not exposed those who do not attend these institutions. The findings from a post mortem are usually a widespread inflammation of the pia mater and arachnoid layers of the meninges. Teens and young adults who receive any vaccine have an increased risk for fainting.

  3. Teens who receive their first dose at age 13 through 15 years should receive a booster at 16 through 18 years or up to 5 years after their first dose. If there are signs of raised intracranial pressure, measures to monitor the pressure may be taken; this would allow the optimization of the cerebral perfusion pressure and various treatments to decrease the intracranial pressure with medication e. The mandatory report of this group of infections has been implemented since as part of national communicable diseases surveillance.

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