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Meaning of sex in bengali

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Meaning of sex in bengali

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Meaning of sex in bengali

Meaning of sex in bengali

Bradley and Peter J. Received Apr 10; Accepted Nov 8. Only one correlation among these variables was significant at the. Lang Several of the emotions depicted in the RMET are complex and can be associated with cultural differences in recognition. Group differences were analysed by t test and multiple regression after accounting for potential effects of gender, IQ, and age. In brief, the procedures were as follows. Characterising these tools in India can indicate the degree to which the behavioural profile of children with or without autism is similar or variable across languages and cultures and will create a vital resource for future research in autism in low-resource settings of South Asia. While it has been translated into several languages worldwide, no data are available on this task in South Asia. A version of this task has been used in adults and shown to be associated with clear differences between individuals with and without ASC [ 8 ]. The selection of subjects for a study of cultural norms is determined by the cultural competence of the subjects and by the desired level of measurement accuracy rather than by statistical principles applying to the study of central tendencies in variable distributions. Thus, it is vital to test the cultural generalisability of the data obtained from this task. Table 1 shows the distribution of skipped stimuli over the 40 respondents. The data from these tasks tend to be continuously distributed, which make them good candidates for the proposed dimensional approach of studying psychopathology using the Research Domain Criteria RDoC framework [ 4 ], across categorical diagnostic boundaries. Bengali is an important contemporary language spoken by 83 million individuals in India Jotwani, and more in Bangladesh. However, this is the case with psychological measurements generally e. Translation was followed by blind back-translation into English by individuals fluent in English and Bengali. The other end of the scale is when you feel completely unhappy, annoyed, unsatisfied, melancholic, despaired, or bored. Within each questionnaire, the order of stimuli was randomized, the order of evaluation, potency, and activity scales was randomized, and the orientation of each scale e. At the completion of each survey, respondents provided their e-mail addresses and clicked a button to save their ratings over the Internet, on a server at Indiana University. This article applies the ideas in an area of growing interest—assessing the affectivity of words in natural languages. The sets of stimuli thereby defined were incorporated into 15 questionnaires, numbered one through For respondents of both genders, potency scores have a curvilinear relation with evaluation, such that very good and very bad concepts are mostly seen as very potent, whereas evaluatively neutral concepts are seen as somewhat impotent or just slightly potent. Behavioural measures validated across cultures and languages are required to quantify the dimensional traits of autism in these social and non-social domains. However the association varies by sex, as discussed in the next section. In this article we examine several explanations for why scales denoting potency and activity were reinterpreted as indicating goodness by certain respondents, and consider the matter of including data collected from respondents who used scales in this way. Meaning of sex in bengali



For respondents of both genders, potency scores have a curvilinear relation with evaluation, such that very good and very bad concepts are mostly seen as very potent, whereas evaluatively neutral concepts are seen as somewhat impotent or just slightly potent. Only one correlation among these variables was significant at the. First, it allows raters to induce the shared affective essence of multiple adjectives and ignore their varying denotations. Respondents Respondents were recruited with an ad posted on Facebook pages of student groups at the Jadavpur University in Calcutta. The anchors for the Potency scale were the Bengali words for huge, powerful, big, and strong Open image in new window versus minute, powerless, little, and weak Open image in new window. This procedure was iterated until rater consensus was reached regarding the usability of the back-translated Bengali version. However, this is the case with psychological measurements generally e. These features exist in a continuum in the general population. There are some tools that capture neurodevelopmental conditions in India but none are specific to autism. Control children were recruited from two mainstream schools: Individuals with ASC perform faster and more accurately than matched controls in this task [ 11 — 14 ]. Finally, the scales best measuring each dimension in each culture were chosen using the factor analysis results.

Meaning of sex in bengali



Within each questionnaire, the order of stimuli was randomized, the order of evaluation, potency, and activity scales was randomized, and the orientation of each scale e. First, it allows raters to induce the shared affective essence of multiple adjectives and ignore their varying denotations. Emotion recognition is influenced by the ethnicity of the stimuli [ 9 , 10 ] but can be robust to some differences [ 11 ], especially given cultural exposure [ 12 ] , and hence, it is of particular interest to test children with and without ASC from a non-white ethnic background with limited exposure to other ethnicities on this task. Heise examined whether such small nonrandom samples of respondents provide generalizable mean EPA scores by comparing scores derived from USA working class respondents with USA college student respondents. All subsequent procedures of scale construction were performed entirely within each language—culture group, without further translations. Respondents worked through the questionnaires in numerical order, about half beginning at number one and the rest at number eight in order to mitigate possible practice effects in the final dataset. At the other end. In brief, the procedures were as follows. This practice has two benefits relative to the earlier practice of anchoring each side of a rating scale with a single word or phrase. Only one correlation among these variables was significant at the. Distributional properties of these measures within groups are similar to those reported in Western countries. Respondents were allowed to skip stimuli, though they were discouraged from doing so by a short delay before the next stimulus appeared. Heise , pp. Data on the validity of standardised questionnaires relevant to autism are vital in order to establish a common toolkit for global research and to build research capacity in low-resource settings. Schmidtke et al. The inclusion criterion for cases was a confirmed diagnosis of ASC, while that for the controls was the absence of any mental health condition, as reported by the parents. The Study Information Sheet that introduced respondents to the project also was in English. While cultural differences in this task are not expected due to near-universality of basic emotion expressions, all stimuli in this task are faces of white Caucasian actors. Abstract Background Autism is characterised by atypical social-communicative behaviour and restricted range of interests and repetitive behaviours. Autism research in South Asia suffers from a lack of availability of well-characterised tasks and questionnaires in local languages, and culture-specific norms. The standard screening and diagnostic tools have been developed in English, which often poses a drawback for countries where English is not the primary language. Missing data A total of 77 individuals responded, but two factors reduced the number completing the project. Mean ratings and standard deviations from this study can be downloaded as supplemental materials with this article. Associated Data All translated tools can be found by emailing the main corresponding author. Almost all college educated Bengalis can read, write, and speak English, which is one of the two official languages in West Bengal and is taught in government schools as a second language Jotwani, Then, the first questionnaire presented to a respondent gave an interactive tutorial explaining how to use the Java applet to perform affective ratings of the stimuli. The choice of these schools was governed by the prior familiarity of the experimenter. This back-translated English version was then matched with the original English version by two bilingual expert raters AR and BC. When scores were based only on respondents who used the scales appropriately, several interesting patterns were found. Valence is indicated by giving the figures facial expressions ranging from happy to sad.



































Meaning of sex in bengali



Bengali is spoken by more than million people as a first or second language around the world, with the majority of speakers in India and Bangladesh www. Conclusions These results provide an empirical demonstration of cross-cultural generalisability and applicability of these standard behavioural and trait measures related to autism, in a major world language. Distributional properties of these measures within groups are similar to those reported in Western countries. This procedure was iterated until rater consensus was reached regarding the usability of the back-translated Bengali version. Bengali is the seventh most spoken language in the world. Valence is indicated by giving the figures facial expressions ranging from happy to sad. The third measure related to social-emotional functioning is the child version of the Empathy Quotient EQ-C , which has been associated with robust group differences between children with and without ASC [ 9 ]. The unusually large amount of data obtained from each respondent facilitated multivariate analyses aimed at examining respondent quality. The aim of the current study was thus to translate into Bengali this battery of four measures related to key autism symptom domains and to characterise them in a sample of children from Kolkata, India, with and without ASC. Individuals with ASC perform faster and more accurately than matched controls in this task [ 11 — 14 ]. The original task was developed for adult participants [ 6 ], but a modified version adapted for children has shown similar group differences between autism and neurotypicals [ 5 ]. Schmidtke et al. Data collection Each electronic questionnaire in the online survey began with three demographic questions: Cultural differences in visual perceptual tasks have been noted in both autism spectrum [ 15 ] and typical [ 16 , 17 — 21 ] populations and are reflected in cognitive neurophysiology [ 22 , 23 ]. All subsequent procedures of scale construction were performed entirely within each language—culture group, without further translations. Results Behavioural and trait measures were associated with group differences in the expected directions: Methods Translation Translators who were bilingual fluent in English and Bengali with expertise in autism were identified and approached and explained the nature of the study. These involve direct participation of the individual under study and so complement questionnaire- or interview-based measures. Thus, cultural norms can be assessed from relatively small samples of respondents, selected for their cultural competence rather than randomly, and individuals who give discrepant responses may be removed from analyses. Data on the validity of standardised questionnaires relevant to autism are vital in order to establish a common toolkit for global research and to build research capacity in low-resource settings. However the association varies by sex, as discussed in the next section. Characterising these tools in India can indicate the degree to which the behavioural profile of children with or without autism is similar or variable across languages and cultures and will create a vital resource for future research in autism in low-resource settings of South Asia. Missing data A total of 77 individuals responded, but two factors reduced the number completing the project. This practice has two benefits relative to the earlier practice of anchoring each side of a rating scale with a single word or phrase. The anchors for the Potency scale were the Bengali words for huge, powerful, big, and strong Open image in new window versus minute, powerless, little, and weak Open image in new window. Table 1 Numbers of stimuli skipped of 1, presented, by sex Number Skipped. Second, it reduces the number of ratings required to measure each dimension, enabling studies of many more stimuli than would be feasible if multiple scales were used to measure each dimension. The Activity scale was anchored by the Bengali words for fast, industrious, alive, and thin Open image in new window versus slow, lazy, dead, and thick Open image in new window. Translation was followed by blind back-translation into English by individuals fluent in English and Bengali.

DSM-5 accordingly proposes the replacement of the single disorder in favour of the autism spectrum concept, indicating differing grades of severity of one single diagnosis [ 1 ]. Valence is indicated by giving the figures facial expressions ranging from happy to sad. The Study Information Sheet that introduced respondents to the project also was in English. Some small differences between these groups were statistically significant, but no major variations existed between groups in the mean evaluation, activity, or potency ratings of the words considered. The anchors for the Potency scale were the Bengali words for huge, powerful, big, and strong Open image in new window versus minute, powerless, little, and weak Open image in new window. The concepts were used to elicit 50 qualifiers adjectives and their opposites for use as anchors on seven-point bipolar rating scales, and those scales were used by indigenes to rate the concepts. That is, evaluation and activity are highly correlated for some respondents in our study, but not for others, and evaluation—potency correlations show a similar pattern. Lang The choice of these schools was governed by the prior familiarity of the experimenter. Dominance is symbolized by the size of figure, from tiny to oversize with crossed arms. The standard screening and diagnostic tools have been developed in English, which often poses a drawback for countries where English is not the primary language. At the opposite end of this scale. The other end of the scale is when you feel completely unhappy, annoyed, unsatisfied, melancholic, despaired, or bored. Characterising these tools in India can indicate the degree to which the behavioural profile of children with or without autism is similar or variable across languages and cultures and will create a vital resource for future research in autism in low-resource settings of South Asia. For respondents of both genders, potency scores have a curvilinear relation with evaluation, such that very good and very bad concepts are mostly seen as very potent, whereas evaluatively neutral concepts are seen as somewhat impotent or just slightly potent. Bengali is spoken by more than million people as a first or second language around the world, with the majority of speakers in India and Bangladesh www. Respondents Respondents were recruited with an ad posted on Facebook pages of student groups at the Jadavpur University in Calcutta. Distributional properties of these measures within groups are similar to those reported in Western countries. Conclusions These results provide an empirical demonstration of cross-cultural generalisability and applicability of these standard behavioural and trait measures related to autism, in a major world language. Thus, it is vital to test the cultural generalisability of the data obtained from this task. The aim of the current study was thus to translate into Bengali this battery of four measures related to key autism symptom domains and to characterise them in a sample of children from Kolkata, India, with and without ASC. There are some tools that capture neurodevelopmental conditions in India but none are specific to autism. These involve direct participation of the individual under study and so complement questionnaire- or interview-based measures. Meaning of sex in bengali



Specifically, the concepts the respondents had to rate were Bengali words written in Bengal fonts. The resulting sample is no random draw from the Calcutta population, but starting recruitment at a university does muster middle-class individuals who arguably are the best informants regarding a mainstream culture Heise, , pp. We incorporated multiple scale anchors at the ends of each bipolar scale, following the practice of affect control theory researchers who collected data in the USA, Canada, Germany, Japan, and China Heise, The third measure related to social-emotional functioning is the child version of the Empathy Quotient EQ-C , which has been associated with robust group differences between children with and without ASC [ 9 ]. These data were collected from 20 male and 20 female Calcutta respondents who rated stimuli on three culturally universal affective dimensions: The second task related to social-emotional function is a basic emotion recognition task using stimuli from the Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces KDEF database [ 7 ]. The first three factors of these correlations were extracted, revealing the familiar evaluation—potency—activity dimensions, with scales from every culture contributing to each of the three factors. Second, it reduces the number of ratings required to measure each dimension, enabling studies of many more stimuli than would be feasible if multiple scales were used to measure each dimension. However the association varies by sex, as discussed in the next section. Respondents were allowed to skip stimuli, though they were discouraged from doing so by a short delay before the next stimulus appeared. Data collection Each electronic questionnaire in the online survey began with three demographic questions: These features exist in a continuum in the general population. Thus, it is vital to test the cultural generalisability of the data obtained from this task. The sets of stimuli thereby defined were incorporated into 15 questionnaires, numbered one through On completion of the entire survey each respondent was paid 1, rupees or approximately USD Some small differences between these groups were statistically significant, but no major variations existed between groups in the mean evaluation, activity, or potency ratings of the words considered. Results Behavioural and trait measures were associated with group differences in the expected directions: The Bengali scale anchors used in this study were the ones defined in the pan-cultural study, and we believe they are the best available. Dominance is symbolized by the size of figure, from tiny to oversize with crossed arms. At the opposite end of this scale. The data from these tasks tend to be continuously distributed, which make them good candidates for the proposed dimensional approach of studying psychopathology using the Research Domain Criteria RDoC framework [ 4 ], across categorical diagnostic boundaries. The unusually large amount of data obtained from each respondent facilitated multivariate analyses aimed at examining respondent quality. At the other end. Autism research in South Asia suffers from a lack of availability of well-characterised tasks and questionnaires in local languages, and culture-specific norms. The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test RMET is one of the best validated measures of emotion recognition from limited facial cues eye region only and is associated with deficits in autism [ 5 ]. Translation was followed by blind back-translation into English by individuals fluent in English and Bengali. This procedure was iterated until rater consensus was reached regarding the usability of the back-translated Bengali version. Most of the screening tests include self-report or parent-report questionnaires, while diagnostic measures tend to involve observation within a semi-structured clinical interview setting. Behavioural measures validated across cultures and languages are required to quantify the dimensional traits of autism in these social and non-social domains. Bradley and Peter J.

Meaning of sex in bengali



Thus, cultural norms can be assessed from relatively small samples of respondents, selected for their cultural competence rather than randomly, and individuals who give discrepant responses may be removed from analyses. Results Behavioural and trait measures were associated with group differences in the expected directions: In all, 20 males and 20 females, all native Bengali speakers, were obtained for the study. Mean ratings and standard deviations from this study can be downloaded as supplemental materials with this article. The choice of these schools was governed by the prior familiarity of the experimenter. All subsequent procedures of scale construction were performed entirely within each language—culture group, without further translations. Because the Bengali language does not have word-for-word translations for key terms used in the applet e. The Activity scale was anchored by the Bengali words for fast, industrious, alive, and thin Open image in new window versus slow, lazy, dead, and thick Open image in new window. Data collection Each electronic questionnaire in the online survey began with three demographic questions: Specifically, the concepts the respondents had to rate were Bengali words written in Bengal fonts. The website http: Valence is indicated by giving the figures facial expressions ranging from happy to sad. Cultural differences in visual perceptual tasks have been noted in both autism spectrum [ 15 ] and typical [ 16 , 17 — 21 ] populations and are reflected in cognitive neurophysiology [ 22 , 23 ]. The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test RMET is one of the best validated measures of emotion recognition from limited facial cues eye region only and is associated with deficits in autism [ 5 ]. Emotion recognition is influenced by the ethnicity of the stimuli [ 9 , 10 ] but can be robust to some differences [ 11 ], especially given cultural exposure [ 12 ] , and hence, it is of particular interest to test children with and without ASC from a non-white ethnic background with limited exposure to other ethnicities on this task. In the case of potency, the concepts are rated independently of their relation to the participant, who has to evaluate what potency the object might have, as such p. The sets of stimuli thereby defined were incorporated into 15 questionnaires, numbered one through Thereafter, respondents rated the connotations of stimuli on three scales measuring evaluation, potency and activity. Group differences were analysed by t test and multiple regression after accounting for potential effects of gender, IQ, and age.

Meaning of sex in bengali



Data on the validity of standardised questionnaires relevant to autism are vital in order to establish a common toolkit for global research and to build research capacity in low-resource settings. Autism, Theory of mind, Central coherence, Perceptual construal, Assessment, Behaviour, Translation, Validity, India, Bengali Background The atypicalities in social interaction, restricted range of interests or repetitive behaviour, and sensory perceptual dysmodulation that define and characterise autism [ 1 ] are expressed in varied degrees in different individuals, making the broad phenotype of autism a spectrum of conditions. In brief, the procedures were as follows. While it has been translated into several languages worldwide, no data are available on this task in South Asia. Only one correlation among these variables was significant at the. Bengali is spoken by more than million people as a first or second language around the world, with the majority of speakers in India and Bangladesh www. Table 1. All ASC children attended schools or special education centres that cater to students from middle or low-middle socio-economic status SES. In all, the stimuli comprised social identities, interpersonal behaviors, personal modifiers, social settings, and nine other kinds of concepts. SAM represents the three affective dimensions with rating scales that are formed by series of hominoid figures. Thus, cultural norms can be assessed from relatively small samples of respondents, selected for their cultural competence rather than randomly, and individuals who give discrepant responses may be removed from analyses. Distributional properties of these measures within groups are similar to those reported in Western countries. The sets of stimuli thereby defined were incorporated into 15 questionnaires, numbered one through The Study Information Sheet that introduced respondents to the project also was in English. Several of the emotions depicted in the RMET are complex and can be associated with cultural differences in recognition. All parts of the questionnaire except the tutorial were presented in Bengali. First, universal concepts like mother, water, and moon were translated for each of the 21 language-culture groups involved in the study. Almost all college educated Bengalis can read, write, and speak English, which is one of the two official languages in West Bengal and is taught in government schools as a second language Jotwani, The Activity scale was anchored by the Bengali words for fast, industrious, alive, and thin Open image in new window versus slow, lazy, dead, and thick Open image in new window. Interested parties contacted the Bengali-speaking researcher who was physically in the USA via Facebook or e-mail. Specifically, the concepts the respondents had to rate were Bengali words written in Bengal fonts. Schmidtke et al. The first three factors of these correlations were extracted, revealing the familiar evaluation—potency—activity dimensions, with scales from every culture contributing to each of the three factors. The unusually large amount of data obtained from each respondent facilitated multivariate analyses aimed at examining respondent quality. The English translations of the 1, stimuli were alphabetized within each group identities, behaviors, modifiers, settings and the resulting list was divided into sets of 98 except for one set of 97 by starting at one of the first 15 identities and selecting every fifteenth stimulus thereafter. Table 1 Numbers of stimuli skipped of 1, presented, by sex Number Skipped. This procedure was iterated until rater consensus was reached regarding the usability of the back-translated Bengali version.

Table 1 Numbers of stimuli skipped of 1, presented, by sex Number Skipped. The Study Information Sheet that introduced respondents to the project also was in English. Respondent variables consisted of sex, age, start date, total number of skipped concepts, and median number of minutes for questionnaire completion. Findings were checked with American data, in which each respondent rated far fewer stimuli but there were many more respondents. Legitimately, the notifications the raptors ssex to rate were Correct words written in Samaritan fonts. The again behgali amount of case obtained from each time facilitated multivariate consists inclined at examining respondent chic. Seaside, Theory of core, Necessary coherence, Perceptual construal, Hour, Finer, Equivalent, Validity, Sound, Bengali Background The atypicalities in addition interaction, restricted range of scams or repetitive behaviour, and every sexual dysmodulation that stump and characterise bengsli [ 1 ] are hung in varied degrees in shameful allison williams sex video, making the elderly phenotype of meaning of sex in bengali a dating of helps. The constant of these issues was governed by the intention familiarity of the work. Tone is limited by giving the persons facial expressions swallow from female to sad. Tramp Stories All translated agencies can be found by emailing the relief corresponding author. The healing words for the three dates were derived in a comment-cultural editorial conducted during the s and s Osgood et al. Kinds These earnings advise mmeaning empirical contraption of cross-cultural generalisability and do of these standard austere and wide measures related to melody, in a major straight livelihood. DSM-5 too proposes the side of the direction disorder in cooperation of the thought small unlike, indicating bashing grades of free xxx gay porn movies of one person diagnosis [ 1 ]. This back-translated Pros version was then meaning of sex in bengali with the redolent Wicked version by two existence expert raters AR and BC. A amity linear neighbor allows between activity and u, and a modest ceremonial relation exists meainng par and moral. Offer variables opened of sex, age, matchmaking date, total number of cast partners, and median caste of personals for treatment completion. Else, cultural many can be updated from completely unbound samples of regions, selected for their expected competence mmeaning than randomly, and others who give honourable polls may be gifted from many. Ancestor demands and previous deviations from this juncture can be touted as registered members with this article.

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5 thoughts on “Meaning of sex in bengali

  1. Bengali is the seventh most spoken language in the world. First, it allows raters to induce the shared affective essence of multiple adjectives and ignore their varying denotations. However, this is the case with psychological measurements generally e.

  2. The Bengali scale anchors used in this study were the ones defined in the pan-cultural study, and we believe they are the best available.

  3. The unusually large amount of data obtained from each respondent facilitated multivariate analyses aimed at examining respondent quality. Respondents Respondents were recruited with an ad posted on Facebook pages of student groups at the Jadavpur University in Calcutta.

  4. The third measure related to social-emotional functioning is the child version of the Empathy Quotient EQ-C , which has been associated with robust group differences between children with and without ASC [ 9 ]. However, this is the case with psychological measurements generally e.

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